Volume 1 Issue 3: December 2018

PaperID: AJERD0103_1, Pages: 290-294
River Water Quality Assessment: A Case Study of River Ona, South Western Nigeria
Author: Ochuko Mary OJO
Abstract: This study considered the use of World Health Organization (WHO) water standard to describe the level of pollution at both the upstream and downstream sections of River Ona. River Ona, which is the only river in Oluyole Industrial Estate of Ibadan, serves as alternative source of potable water for some of the dwellers at the upstream section of the river. There are various types of industries in the area and they all discharge their wastewater into this river. Water samples were collected and tested for physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters. Although the physical and chemical characteristics of the river water did not significantly deviate from permissible standard, the bacteriological quality of the water was poor. The value of total coliform obtained from the result of the laboratory analysis were 160 and 92 MPN/100L at the downstream and upstream sections of the river respectively. Also, the numbers of e-coli found in the water sample were 84 and 49 MPN/100 mL at the downstream and upstream sections of the river respectively. These values far exceed WHO permissible limits for potable water. The study revealed an unacceptable level of bacteriological contamination, hence, water from River Ona is not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment.

PaperID: AJERD0103_2, Pages: 295-303
Development of an Energy Efficient Data Fusion Technique for Homogenous Distributed Sensor Networks
Authors: James AGAJO, Bello K. NUHU, Lukman Adewale AJAO, Oluwasheyi IBRAHIM, Opeyemi Ibrahim MUFUTAU
Abstract: Wireless distributed sensor network has brought about increased accuracy in monitoring application which is the major purpose of WSNs. However, data redundancy and reliability are some issues posed by such network hence the introduction of data fusion technique increased the accuracy of data and reduce data redundancy and make it faults tolerant. While some of the technique focused on reducing data redundancy. Some focused on achieving fault tolerance in the network and some focused on both and most of the researchers did not consider integrating data fusion with energy conservation technique for increased network lifetime. In this work, an energy efficient data fusion technique is presented using Telosb xm1000. During cluster heads selection, we take nodes fused data and neighbour nodes fused data in sending the average fused data to the cluster head which serves as the intermediary between the nodes and the base station into consideration. In addition, we take advantage of node by dividing the nodes in two sect, sect A and sect B by each sect sampling at 5secs and sleeping for five minutes interval to improve the lifetime of the nodes by hundred percent instead of traditional method. In this scheme, sampling by half improves the efficiency of energy and prolong the lifetime in a distributed way. The experimental results indicate our scheme is better than some other scheme in aspects of energy consumption and the lifetime of the network.

PaperID: AJERD0103_3, Pages: 304-316
Development of Non-Parametric Noise Reduction Algorithm for GSM Voice Signal
Author: Safiu Abiodun GBADAMOSI, Musa Abiodun AIBINU, Adeiza James ONUMANYI
Abstract: Speech enhancement in Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is an area of engineering that study different kinds of techniques used in enhancing GSM voice signals. The presence of noise in GSM degrades the quality and intelligible of speech which impedes speaker identification and sound clarity. In this paper, non-parametric noise reduction algorithm which incorporates an adaptive threshold technique is proposed to estimate the adaptive threshold value as a function of first and second order statistics of the voice signal. It uses the cumulative value of minimum mean and maximum standard deviation value and minimum (mean and standard deviation) to minimize the effect of impairments introduced by background noise and GSM channels. The algorithm was implemented in MATLAB environment. The results obtained indicate correlation coefficients of 53.93% and 23 45.52% for maximum and minimum threshold value at 2.95 24 standard deviation of noise and 77.93% and 75.83% for maximum and minimum threshold value at 0.25 standard deviation of noise, respectively. Evaluation of the proposed algorithm was performed on real noisy voice signal and a correlation of 92.15% and 89.24% was achieved for both maximum and minimum threshold values with mean square error of 0.0011% and 0.00033%, respectively. These results have proven the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. The threshold values have satisfied perfect noise reduction when the mean and standard deviation values are selected properly.

PaperID: AJERD0103_4, Pages: 317-325
Adsorption of Atrazine from Aqueous Solution Using Desert Date Seed Shell Activated Carbon
Author: Saidat Olanipekun GIWA, Job Sule MOSES, Abel Adekanmi ADEYI, Abdulwahab GIWA
Abstract: Exposure to atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides, has been associated to many health problems including cancer and infertility. During the course of application, off-target movement of these chemicals usually results into crop damaging as well as environmental pollution. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to treat water contaminated with atrazine using activated carbon produced from desert date seed shell. The activated carbon was prepared via chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide. Prior to adsorption experiments carried out at various adsorbent dosages, contact time, initial atrazine concentration and temperature, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer was used to characterize the prepared desert date seed shell activated carbon (DDSSAC). In order to investigate the mechanism and kinetics of the adsorption, experimental data were fitted to some adsorption isotherms and kinetic models. The batch adsorption experiments revealed that increasing adsorbent dosage and contact time but decreasing temperature and initial concentration of atrazine increased percentage atrazine removal. The results of the isotherm studies revealed that the equilibrium data fitted to both Freundlich and Langmuir model with R-squared values of 0.9956 and 0.9996 respectively, which implied that Langmuir isotherm had a better fit. This was also found to be an indication that the uptake of atrazine by DDSSAC occurred through monolayer sorption on identical homogenous sites. Also, kinetic modelling results obtained showed that pseudo-second-order model explained the adsorption kinetics of atrazine by DDSSAC best, which meant that chemisorption was the slowest step and, thus, the rate determining step. This study has indicated that desert date seed shell can be used to produce activated carbon that can be applied effectively for adsorption of atrazine from aqueous solution.

PaperID: AJERD0103_5, Pages: 326-330
Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of Quality of Tellus 68 Lubricating Oil for Effective Cooling of Turbo Generators
Authors: Bernard Akindade ADARAMOLA, Joseph Suleimon. ENABUREKHAN, Oluwasina Lawan ROMINIYI, James Olaoye AKINYOOLA
Abstract: This work involves the use of experimental procedures of neutron reflection process, irradiation and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for property characterization of Tellus 68 lubricating oil. The total hydrogen content of two samples of Tellus 68 lubricating oil was determined using 37 GBq241 Am-Be source. Further procedure requires the minimum sample preparation, two irradiation regimes and four counting strategies adopted on the basis of half-life of product radionuclide and the neutron spectrum parameters in the inner and outer irradiation channels of Nigeria Research Reactor (NIRR-1). Samples were prepared by pulverising, homogenising, mass determination and packaging. Pre- irradiation sample treatment (such as cleaning, drying or ashing, pre- concentration of elements of interest for elimination of interfering elements, sub- elements, sub- sampling and packaging) were carried out. Irradiation (prompt γ –ray counting in PGNAA) and radiochemical separation (only in RNAA) was conducted. Radioactive elemental concentration was measured for calculation of results for preparation of the NAA result.  The analytical results of instrumental NAA of the oil samples when compared with manufacturer’s specification validates Tellus 68 lubricating oil to be of good quality for effective cooling of Turbo generator.

PaperID: AJERD0103_6, Pages: 331-345
Ultra-Low Power Wireless Sensor Networks: Overview of Applications, Design Requirements and Challenges
Authors: Frederick Ojiemhende EHIAGWINA, Olufemi  Oluseye KEHINDE, Nurudeen Ajibola IROMINI, Abubakar Siddiq NAFIU, Deepak PUNETHA
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have received significant attention from various researchers in terms of its architecture, design, challenges and supporting technologies, and so on. Also, their applications to different aspect such as structural health monitoring, health care, precision agriculture, intelligent transport systems have been reported. Though, some authors have reviewed different aspects of wireless sensor nodes, including applications, this paper presents a short survey of selected literature from a pool of articles reporting application cases of ultra-low power WSNs published in 2010-2017. In this paper, specific design requirements for using ultra-low power sensor nodes were highlighted. In addition, existing solutions to challenges encountered when using WSNs for the selected applications were examined. This short survey will help readers and practitioners with scholarly resource needed for understanding the state-of-the-art in ultra-low power wireless sensor applications and offers insight into areas for further research. It will also help researchers to become aware of potential collaborators in future works involving WSNs.

PaperID: AJERD0103_7, Pages: 346-350
Application of Ground Rigid Polyurethane Waste as Filler in Production of Flexible Polyurethane Foam
Authors: Muhammad Awwal USMAN, Wasiu Ajibola AYOOLA, Kuboh Kafui EDWARD
Abstract: Incorporation of rigid polyurethane foam waste to pure polyol foam for the production of foams has been investigated. The polyurethane foam waste ranging between 1 and 10% was blended with the pure polyol. Subsequently, the blended mixture was cast into a metallic mould and mechanical tests were performed on the samples. Incorporation of polyurethane foam waste into pure polyol foam resulted in materials of satisfactory mechanical properties. Addition of the filler materials inhibited better density, compression set, hardness, load-bearing capacity and % elongation-at-break compared to the pure polyol. From the results of thermal conductivity of the blended foams, it was observed that thermal insulation property was improved.  In addition, the particle sizes of the polyurethane foam waste played significant role on the mechanical properties of the blended foams – each of the mechanical properties improved as the filler size got smaller. The results of this study showed that polyurethane foam waste can be successfully used as filler materials to improve mechanical properties and reduce production cost of flexible polyurethane foam.

PaperID: AJERD0103_8, Pages: 351-365
Transports of Different Cuttings Sizes in A Wellbore using Henna and Lignite Materials
Authors: Jeffrey Onuoma OSEH, Afeez GBADAMOSI, Adebayo OGUNYEMI, Oluwagbenga Olawale OMOTARA
Abstract: Knowledge gained in the field has revealed that ineffective transports of cuttings are the major contributing factors for undue torque and drag problem during wellbore drilling operations; however, only little information is known about cuttings transports behaviour with different cuttings sizes owing to availability of limited field data on flow pattern of different cuttings sizes. In this study, cuttings transports experiment at a constant flowrate of 380.52 bbl/D with four different cuttings sizes (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 2.4 mm) was conducted in a laboratory-scale flow loop of dimensions (3.0 in. × 2.0 in., 11 ft.-long) annular test section with no pipe rotation. The effects of these cuttings sizes at three hole-angles (0°, 45°, and 90°) were investigated. The findings revealed that the larger cuttings sizes (2.0 mm and 2.4 mm) shows a lower degree of cuttings transportation compared with the smaller cuttings sizes (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm). Accordingly, the smallest cuttings size of 0.5 mm has higher cuttings recovery to the surface. The fluid viscosity and hole-angles were found to have direct contributions to cuttings transports, while cuttings size have minimal contributions. Viscosity at 8 cPand other muds properties at this viscosity, such as yield point (5 lb/100ft²), 10-sec gel strength (7.0 lb/100ft²), and 10-mins gel strength (8 lb/100ft²) achieved the optimum cuttings transports efficiencyby producing the highest contribution to the cleaning of the wellbore compared to the overall performance of the mud at other viscosities (2.5, 4.5, 5.5, 12, 13 and 17 cP). Hole-angle of 45° was found to be the most challenging for effective cuttings transports owing to its lower cuttings transferring efficiency, and they need greater attention while designing the drilling mud. The outcomes of these study could lead to a new approach in improving cuttings transportation using henna and lignite materials.

PaperID: AJERD0103_9, Pages: 366-370
Ergonomic Suitability of Library Readers’ Furniture in a Nigerian University
Authors: Obinna P. FIDELIS, Olusoji A. ADALUMO, Ephraim O. NWOYE
Abstract: The use of library reading rooms is considered an important academic activity especially in a University environment and poorly-designed furniture may affect the benefits of using the library. The study aimed to evaluate the ergonomic suitability of reading room furniture at the main library of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. 184 students (92 males and 92 females) participated in the study. The anthropometric measures of the students were obtained using the traditional methods well reported by previous researchers and the results were compared with those of the furniture dimensions available at the library. A high level of mismatch was recorded particularly with the seat heights, seat depth and seat-desk height. In fact, only about 13.3% of the participants found seats with matching height and depth for one set of furniture and about 3.0% for another set of furniture. The nature of library furniture is highly connected with deriving maximum benefit from using a library; therefore, the furniture should fit the users as much as possible.

PaperID: AJERD0103_10, Pages: 371-379
The Effect of Cement-NBRRI Pozzolanic Material Blend on the Mechanical Properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete
Authors: Simon Olayiwola A. OLAWALE, Murtadha Adekilekun TIJANI, Olusegun ALABI
Abstract: Cement is an essential material required for the production of concrete. However, its cost is on the steady rise in Nigeria leading to restricting the development of housing scheme. Although, some pozzolanic materials have been developed by Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NBBRI) known as NBRRI cement and it has being in production for some years back without any use whatsoever. Research carried out on cement reduction using NBRRI pozzolan shows that 12% of cement replacement results to almost 0% replacement, reducing the cost of concrete drastically. Moreover, it is pertinent to find a means of improving strength by adding on some reinforcements such as glass fibre (GF) that are cheap and readily available. Experimental program was carried out on NBRRI as partial replacement for cement (3% to 15% at the interval of 3%) with addition of glass fibre (0.2% to 0.4% at the interval of 0.1%) of 5mm length. Concrete mix, 1:1.5:3 was designed for all specimens with w/c of 0.45. Slump, compressive, split tensile and flexural strength tests were carried out on concrete samples in accordance with BS standards. It was observed from the results that concrete workability decreases as the amount of the NBRRI pozzolan increases with increase in the amount of glass fibre content. Optimum value of 38.99, 3.50 and 6.12 N/mm2 were obtained for compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of the concrete at 12% addition of NBRRI pozzolan with 0.4% glass fiber content at 28 days curing age respectively. It is concluded that addition of glass fibre to concrete made by replacing cement with NBRRI pozzolan significantly improved the strength of the concrete.

PaperID: AJERD0103_11, Pages: 380-384
Developing an Automated Inverter for Efficient Energy Usage Based on Internet of Things Technology
Authors: Olawale Olaniyi Emmanuel AJIBOLA, Mosopeoluwa OGUNDIPE, Kasiopo David KURE, Hope UWA, Sheriff SANNI, Opeyemi Oladayo AKINTELURE and Peter ODINE
Abstract: This paper presents a method of conserving energy as a precursor for efficient monitoring of usage of electricity based on the concept of the Internet of Things (IOT). The prototype was deployed on a 5kVA inverter that derived its energy from a solar power system. This was achieved through the use of an Arduino Uno microcontroller which served the dual purpose of monitoring and regulating supply of power from the solar energy system over a Wi-Fi network using an android application. The outcome of the work showed that the IOTs technology is an excellent tool for control and monitoring of energy consumption in any setting. The result showed that within four hours of unguarded usage of energy, the system exhausted the charge stored in the battery. The device will enable user put the reserved energy to efficient usage by measuring and controlling energy dissipation through the android application in real time.

PaperID: AJERD0103_12, Pages: 385-392
Implementation of Intelligent Fuzzy Logic Scheme in Video Transmission Over 2.4GHz Wireless
Authors: Khalil DALEGAN, Abdulwaheed MUSA and Muheeb AHMED
Abstract: Video transmission over varying channels like wireless technology is unpredictable because of interferences caused by other wireless devices in the same Industrial, Scientific and Medicine (ISM) frequency band and/or general channel noises. Transmitting Moving Picture Expert Group (MPEG) video stream over wireless technology presents a challenge, as MPEG demands large bandwidth. Considering these issues of interference and bandwidth consumption, an intelligent transmission is introduced in this research work such that the controller adjusts itself to the current state of the wireless channel to sustain MPEG video quality during the communication process. A neural-fuzzy controller and a rule-based fuzzy controller are implemented in the design to monitor input – output of a traffic shaping buffer and offer suitable parameters for the MPEG encoder for video transmission over the network. This method reduces data loss and improves image quality as compared to traditional open-loop MPEG video transmission over wireless.

PaperID: AJERD0103_13, Pages: 393-398
Longitudinal and Transverse Mobility of Some Heavy Metals on Receiving Soils of Dumpsites in Niger State, Nigeria
Authors: John Jiya MUSA, Jeremiah David BALA, Hassana Ibrahim MUSTAPHA, Elijah Tsado MUSA, Yahuza Ibrahim YERIMA, Sunday Enebojojo DANIEL, and Musa Paul AKOS
Abstract: Population growth and Industrialization have caused the introduction of toxic substances into the agricultural soil from manufacturing processes as waste. This study describes the longitudinal and transverse mobility of this waste containing heavy metals from dumpsites to the surrounding environment of Niger state, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected within the dumpsites at distance of 10 m and 20 m away at three depths (5 cm, 15 cm and 30 cm) to assess the concentration and mobility of Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and Al. The results show that heavy metals are more concentrated in the topsoil with significant migration down the slope, thereby posing a threat to groundwater quality. In the fractions, the concentrations of the metals follow this sequence: Mn>Fe>Cu>Zn>Cr>Al. The mobility factors of the heavy metals are significantly high indicating high potential mobility and bioavailable forms of these heavy metals. The high concentrations of the heavy metals particularly Cr, as observed in the study is as a result of anthropogenic activities on the enrichment of natural soil with bioavailable heavy metals. Consequently, there is a need to be cautious in the way waste that is generated from heavy metals sources is added to the natural soil.

PaperID: AJERD0103_14, Pages: 399-404
Design and Fabrication of an Indigenous Electronic Driven Wheelchair
Authors: Olawale O.E. AJIBOLA, Olumide ADEBAYO and Davidson O. OSUNDE
Abstract: The essence of mobility in humans cannot be over-emphasized, thus the difficulty that persons living with motor impairment suffer with impeding effect on their physical development and social interactions. Electronic driven wheelchair (EDW) can mitigate against the effects of the aforementioned suffering. However, the cost of acquiring an EDW is beyond the reach of an average Nigerian. In this paper, the design and fabrication of a locally produced low cost EDW was reported. The device was designed for outdoor use with two rear motor driven wheels, two 12V DC deep cycle batteries, angle bar, galvanized metal pipes, solar panel, rattan (cane) and bamboo. Control for the EDW is achieved through the use of a joystick. The batteries can be charged either by using 220V AC mains or a solar module. The framework of the wheelchair is made up of about 50% metal, 35% rattan, and 15% bamboo. Available anthropometric data for Nigerian adult was used in designing an applicable prototype. The product of the study is a functional EDW. The essence of the innovation is to afford average income earners the opportunity to acquire and use an electric wheelchair.