Volume I, Issue 1, June 2020


Volume 1, Issue 1: June 2020
No Article Page
1. COVID-19 Pandemic and the “Politics” of China’s Soft Power Diplomacy: Analysis of China’s COVID-19 Aid to Nigeria

Author(s): Adaora Osondu-Oti


An acute respiratory and infectious novel coronavirus disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus (COVID-19) was discovered in Wuhan, China in late 2019. In January 2020, the World Health Organisation declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and announced a name for the new coronavirus disease: COVID-19. Since then, the virus has mostly spread through person to person contact to all countries in the world except Antarctica. As the world grapples with the COVID-19 pandemic, China was able to contain the first wave of disease and as a result, presented itself as a global leader by offering support to other countries in the fight against the pandemic. However, countries’ response to China’s COVID-19 aid has been mixed with both praises and criticisms. In Nigeria, for instance, the invitation of the Chinese medical team was vehemently resisted by the Nigerian Medical Association, who saw China’s aid as politically motivated. Thus, this study analyses China’s COVID-19 aid to Nigeria within the context of the politics of China’s soft power diplomacy. Both primary and secondary sources of data are employed including interviews with staff at the Nigeria Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Health, Chinese Embassy in Nigeria; Nigerian Medical Association, academic experts on China-Nigeria relations, scholarly works, et cetera. Preliminary findings show that China’s COVID-19 aid to Nigeria was indeed highly politicized. Although Nigeria received Chinese nationals amid COVID-19 lockdown to assist the country in the fight against the pandemic, it turned out to be pure propaganda as the so-called medical doctors were later presented as staff of the China Civil Engineering Construction Company (CCECC). The politicization of the COVID-19 aid to Nigeria shown in the announcement of the medical team that never existed was a strategy by the Nigerian government to boost China’s image as Nigeria seeks to get debt relief and is also requesting for additional loans from China to balance its budget deficit. The paper then recommends that China should realise that soft power can backfire and cause a reputational loss. Thus, the need to engage in genuine and transparent activities in its overall relations with Africa.

Paper ID: JCIRD1101-1-24                              Full Text: Download



2. The Politics of Development Economics and Peacebuilding: A Postcolonial Global North Hegemonic Agenda?

Author(s): Oluwagbemiga Dasylva


Development economics or international development aid emerged to channel economic resources from the Global North to the developing world for development purposes. Critics have persistently drawn attention to how development economics or international development aid and the more recent approaches to peacebuilding have become conservative if not neo-colonial enterprises. The imperialist/colonies’ interaction had existed before and served as harbingers of, the donor/recipient interaction. Some scholars have argued that the colonial policy and the territorial cum-economic expansionist mindset foregrounded by Europe’s feudalist-capitalist ideology, were designed to support its industrial revolution. There is still great suspicion among critics that there has not been any significant departure from this historic past and “colonial” mindset, and what obtains or characterise today’s economic aid transactional dynamics. What informs this paper, which among other things, is to confirm, or confute the veracity of this claim, or justify the rationale of the allegations. Besides, the study intends to determine the extent to which the socio-economic dynamics have changed, if at all. Through secondary data analysis and archival studies, the paper explains the classic narratives of internationalisation of development economic aid, the original design, and objectives, the praxis, benefits or outcomes for the Global North, and the implications for the developing world (Global South). The methodology engages the various critical approaches to international development and where these neo-colonial sentiments may have originated from as well as the informing rationale. The paper draws on how the field of peacebuilding relates to the field of international development and provides escape routes for its many challenges.

Paper ID: JCIRD1101-25-39                              Full Text: Download



3. Foreign Policy Dynamics of Developed and Developing Countries: An Assessment of United States-Nigeria Bi-National Commission

Author(s): Joshua Fajimbola


This article explores the potentials of the United States-Nigeria Bi-National Commission for influencing positive change in a variety of diplomatic settings, including governance, anti-corruption, economics, security and technology in the diplomatic relations of the United States and Nigeria. This study assesses the use of the United States-Nigeria Bi- National Commission as an instrument of foreign policy dynamics. The study adopts a survey research design and qualitative method. It relied on both primary and secondary sources of data. For primary data collection, the instruments of In-Depth Interviews (IDIs) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were employed. The study anchored the Neo- Marxism theory of State to explain the relationships between the developed and developing countries that represent unequal partners in international relations. The findings showed that the United States-Nigeria Bi-National Commission, although symbolised inequalities in relationships, it however enhanced cooperation, and promoted the national interests of the two countries since its establishment in 2010. The study, therefore, recommends, among others, strategic use of the Bi-National Commission for the political, technological, industrial, and economic growth of Nigeria.

Paper ID: JCIRD1101-40-52                              Full Text: Download




Nigerian Mission and Hajj Operations as Issues in Nigeria – Saudi Arabia Relations: A Contemporary Analysis

Author(s): Jamiu Oluwatoki



Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina and other holy places in Saudi Arabia is pivotal to Nigeria – Saudi Arabia relations. This study aims at examining issues that emanate in Hajj operations, the impact on Nigeria – Saudi Arabia relations, and the role of the Nigerian Mission in managing them. Through structured interviews with diplomats and Hajj administrators and library and archival searches, the paper interrogates the issues emanating particularly from Nigeria’s Hajj operations and how they affect the relations between the two States. The study adopts the Organisational Process and Bureaucratic Politics Models as a framework of analysis. The study shows an aspect of cooperation in international relations, especially of the Global South based on cultural template around a particular religious ritual, the Hajj. Saudi Arabia’s behaviour demonstrates the use of institutional structural power as against wielding relational power in its relations with Nigeria (Keukeleire and Shunz, 2015). Nigeria’s improved Hajj operations through the National Hajj Commission of Nigeria (NAHCON), proved Hudson (2014) right about how foreign policymakers can use organisations without being undermined. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that Hajj management is a global phenomenon; more studies in this area are needed to further enhance our understanding of how states with this type of relations behave. In particular, about Hajj, it hopefully will reinforce Oluwatoki’s (2018) call for a global network for global management of Hajj.

Paper ID: JCIRD1101-53-70                              Full Text: Download




Gender Perspective of Migration Experiences

Author(s): Oluwatomilade Olominu



For a long time, men have been the subject of migration studies. They are often the primary decision-maker of the choice to move. A point of departure, however, is in the dearth of research on male migration in literature today. Women’s migration experiences now surface more in literature. However, women migrate (perhaps far more) for the same reasons men have been migrating, thus the emergence of writings on migrant women. Gendered dimension of migration suggests that the experiences, challenges, and opportunities faced by both men and women in the process of migration can be similar and yet different, and should be studied side by side. This research employs gender difference theories to explain the origin of differences between the male and female, while also exploring different views and opinion on the differences in the migration experience of men and women in Africa. Data were collected from primary (interviews) and secondary sources.


   Paper ID: JCIRD1101-71-82                              Full Text: Download




International Border, Terrorism and National Security: An Assessment of Rising Incidences of Terrorism in Northeast Nigeria

Author(s): Obinna Ukeje



Against the background of the rising incidences of terrorism in northeast Nigeria, the paper examines the national security implications of the porous nature of Nigeria’s international borders with her immediate neighbours. Data is drawn from secondary sources, and with the aid of content analysis. The paper argues that despite efforts by the Nigerian border security managers to maintain adequate border security, socio-economic, geographical, and institutional factors have made it impossible to achieve security along Nigeria’s international borders. These challenges have created a corridor for terrorist activities in the country. Boko Haram’s active presence in Nigeria has opened a window for the influx of other terrorist groups in West Africa, culminating in the rising incidences of terrorism in the country. The paper, therefore, recommended, amongst other things, the re-evaluation of Nigeria’s relations with her immediate neighbours, especially on the free movement of people across the borders to improve Nigeria’s border security. It also recommended for the extension of the government’s presence in the border communities because most of the border communities are largely ungoverned spaces and, thus, constituting a conduit/ harbinger for terrorist activities.


Paper ID: JCIRD1101-83-95                              Full Text: Download




Reforming the United Nations for Sustainable Peace

Author(s): Mbombo, Jean-Marie K


The call for the reform of the United Nations (UN) has been made repeatedly over the years, causing significant changes particularly in the areas of Charter’s amendments, membership expansion, creation of new committees, and commissions among other things. However, in the face of growing menace of terrorist attacks worldwide and raging wars in Syria, Yemen, and Libya, the credibility of the highest decision-making body of the world remains largely questionable. This desk research relied on secondary data and it engaged the literature on the working of the UN. In the light of the balance of power theory of alliances, the paper found out that beyond an apparent inability of the five permanent members of the Security Council to unanimously respond to the world’s urgency for peace and security was hidden a modus vivendi within an alliance of powerful nations: keeping the lid on dissent and maintaining the status quo without addressing the core causes of insecurity in the world. It is therefore recommended that poor nations look inward and develop a people-centered model of peace that does not require the Security Council’s approval.

Paper ID: JCIRD1101-96-106                              Full Text: Download




Remoulding African Political Culture: An Assessment of the Role of the United Nations’ Women

Author(s): Tem Angela Alabi and Moses Etila Shaibu


In terms of natural resources, Africa is the world’s richest continent, yet it contains a growing share of the world’s absolute poor. The poor have little power to influence the allocation of resources. African Political Culture has been implicated as one of the reasons contemporary Africa is plagued by bad governance. Political culture is a distinctive and patterned form of political philosophy that consists of beliefs on how governmental, political, and economic life should be carried out. The Africa continent has remained underdeveloped due to poor governance. African countries will continue to be racked by conflicts unless leaders demonstrate the political will on how to govern their multi-faceted nation-states. The United Nations have acknowledged that Women are a powerful and yet untapped force. In 2010, therefore, an agency, UN Women, was created (the United Nations entity for gender equality). Against this backdrop, this paper examines the activities of the UN Women, its advocacy for legislative and constitutional reforms to ensure women’s fair access to political spheres—as voters, candidates, elected officials. And elections need to uphold women’s rights, including the right to vote and campaign, free from electoral violence. The paper argues that women are key to finding lasting solutions to problems all over the world and suggests that there is a need for women’s full involvement in remolding the Africa political culture in the 21st century.

Paper ID: JCIRD1101-107-123                              Full Text: Download



9. COVID-19 Pandemic and the Middle-East: Impacts and Trajectories

Author(s): Ajinde Oluwashakin


When the novel coronavirus broke out in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, it appeared unheard of. Then it quickly spread too many countries, not sparing the Middle East region that has been in throes of conflict and war for many years. The paper explores the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on this conflict-ridden region, to find out the extent it has mitigated the conflict and war there. Several conspiracy theories have been advanced as to the origin of the virus, but this paper critically examines the natural perspective of the pandemic. The fear and infection of the virus forced some Middle East warring parties to cooperate, for instance, the Israelis and Palestinians, albeit for a brief time. However, it did not significantly attenuate the wars in Syria and Yemen. But it had some sobering effects, for example, making Iran, the hardest hit in the region by the pandemic, to ask the International Monetary Fund for a $5bn stimulus package. This was despite the tensions between Iran and the United States (with veto power in the Fund) to curtail the former’s hegemonic drive in the region. From every indication, the COVID-19 has left some long- lasting impact not only on the Middle East region but the world as a whole, as it has affected virtually every country, great and small, without regard for borders and creeds. It has affected the global health and global economy in very profound ways. While the COVID-19 pandemic will come to an end, though not certain when the world will need to prepare for another yet unknown pandemic.

Paper ID: JCIRD1101-124-141                              Full Text: Download