Volume 2, Issue 1: June, 2021

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1. Friends or Frenemies? Assessing the United States Responses to Nigeria’s Quest for Anti-Terrorism Support

Author(s):  Abimbola Joseph Owojori


Notwithstanding decades-long strains and stresses in their relations, Nigeria is one of the foremost African partners of the United States and a major recipient of American aid in Africa. Both countries have traditionally maintained very robust bilateral relations since the former’s political independence in 1960, especially given their economic ties. Until recently, their economic ties have been very robust, thanks to Nigeria’s sweet crude that the United States largely needed for decades. However, this study examines how the generally cordial bilateral relations between the two countries have not necessarily translated to effective security and anti-terrorism cooperation. Nigeria has consistently focused on the United States for anti-terrorism support, albeit with limited responses from the latter. In this regard, the study utilised both primary and secondary sources to investigate the puzzling inconsistencies in the anti-terrorism cooperation between these supposed allies. Thus, the study revealed that since both countries have a common interest in combating terrorism, a conventional realist approach can help us put in the proper perspective some understandable strategic reasons for their somewhat difficult anti-terrorism cooperation. The study concludes that as much as Nigeria desires American support, the dynamics of their anti-terrorism cooperation will not likely change for as long as the United States does not consider combating terrorism in Nigeria to be strategic to its Homeland Security.

Paper ID: JCIRD 0201-1       Pages 143-163        Full Text: (.pdf)




2. 2020 United States Presidential Poll and Capitol Hill Assault: Tumble from a Democratic Moral High Ground

Author(s): John Danfulani & Ajime Comfort Msurshima


Over 150 million Americans voted in their 3rd November 2020 presidential election. The poll recorded the highest number of voters since the creation of the United States of America (USA) over two centuries ago. The defeated GOP candidate and incumbent President Trump broke from the long-established tradition to concede. He instituted over sixty legal challenges of results of the poll without success. After multiple legal failures, he birthed conspiracy theories that end with a single message: ‘his mandate was stolen.’ This message instigated his supporters’ assault on Capitol Hill by insurrectionists on 6th January 2021. That singular decision liquidated cherished traditions of conceding to the will of the people, peaceful transfer of power, and faith in the American electoral system. A confluence of those events denied the Americans the moral strength to preach liberal democratic ideals at the global stage — a mission they have been leading along with its allies since 1945, even long before then. This study was guided by the theory of American Exceptionalism that is traceable to the nation’s founding philosophy. The study relied on secondary sources of data from periodicals, journals, statements from political actors, and think tank reports. Conclusions and suggestions stemmed from facts encountered in various data consulted and analyzed.

Paper ID: JCIRD0201-2       Pages 164-177            Full Text: (.pdf)




3. The Socio-Economic and Political Foundations of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy During the Second Republic: Lessons of History and Alternatives for the 21st Century

Author(s): Lawrence Olu Adenipekun


This study examines the socio-economic and political foundations of Nigeria’s foreign policy during the Second Republic and their lessons in charting a new path in the 21st Century. It explores how neo-colonialism, within the context of an international capitalist economy, intensified class antagonism, socio-economic and political contradictions, which impinged negatively on the foreign policy initiatives and postures of Nigeria between 1979 and 1983. Drawing insights from the Marxist political economy approach, this fresh study departs from the common orientation of economic determinism by focusing on the complex interplay between the political, economic and social subsystems through the historical materialist approach to which little attention has hitherto been paid. The study made use of primary data through the conduct of interviews and also relied on secondary sources. The study found that the distorted and peripheral role of dependent neo-colonial Nigeria in the world capitalist economy, its sole reliance on oil and the neglect of agriculture generated socio-political and economic crises that constrained it from pursuing viable foreign policy goals during the period under study. The paper concluded that the pursuit of bold and impactful foreign policy goals by Nigeria depends on its ability to reactivate the non-oil sector of its economy, particularly the agricultural and manufacturing sectors.

Paper ID: JCIRD0201-3       Pages 178-192        Full Text: (.pdf)



4. China’s Market Expansion and Impacts on Nigeria’s Textile Industry.

Author(s): Adaora Osondu-Oti


This study analyses the various ways in which China’s market expansion impacts Nigeria’s textile industry. Two major surviving textile firms in Nigeria were studied: Sunflag Textile Manufacturing Company and the United Nigerian Textile Manufacturing Company. The study made use of documentary research and a qualitative case study, where an interview was employed as the research tool. Global economic integration/trade liberalization formed the theoretical basis for analysis. Findings reveal that China’s market expansion driven by globalisation impacts significantly on Nigeria’s textile industry. For instance, the influx of Chinese cheap textiles (80 per cent of textiles in the Nigerian market today are imported from China) and the re-export of textiles imported from China by neighbouring states such as the Benin Republic to Nigeria through smuggling has led to an almost total collapse of Nigeria’s textile industry. China has also taken advantage of the country’s huge infrastructure deficit and government neglect of the textile sector to replicate Nigerian unique Wax print known as Ankara, thereby displacing local producers. Thus, the once-thriving manufacturing textile sector has become moribund as Chinese textiles take over the Nigerian market. The study recommends that the Nigerian government should support (financially) the distressed/collapsed firms and also upgrade the country’s infrastructure particularly the power sector for the remaining textile firms to survive and compete successfully in a globalised world.


Paper ID: JCIRD0201-4       Pages 193-227            Full Text: (.pdf)




5. The Environment and Security Nexus in West Africa and The Sahel Region

Author(s):  Sunday Adejoh & Roberts N. Anya


West Africa and the Sahel region are grappling with several security challenges in the post-colonial era. The geopolitical architecture vis-à-vis the ecological characteristics of these regions has in no small way contributed to precipitating insecurity. This paper, therefore, is an attempt to analyse the nexus between environment and security with a view to bringing to bear the modern understanding of security. It is secondary research and it adopts Homer-Dixon’s theory of resource scarcity. It is the position of this paper that environmental variability in West African and the Sahel has given rise to the manifestation of conflicts and insecurities. The farmers-herders conflict, banditry, Niger Delta conflict, trans-border crimes, insecurity in the Lake Chad Basin, etc are instances of environmentally induced crises. It recommends, among other things, the need for countries in West Africa and the Sahel to put in place early warning systems and strategies to check environmental degradation.


Paper ID: JCIRD0201-5       Pages 228-246    Full Text: (.pdf)




6. Boko Haram Insurgency and Nigerian Foreign Policy: A Failure of Diplomacy, Multilateralism and Security Apparatus?

Author(s): Omobuwajo Olufemi Ajibola


International terrorism became a major concern to Nigeria with the emergence of the Boko Haram Islamist group from around 2009, and the escalation of attacks on the country by the sect. The group has bases in neighbouring countries of Chad, Niger, and Cameroon. This made the governments of Presidents Goodluck Jonathan and Mohammadu Buhari to be involved in negotiations, dialogues, shuttle diplomacy, and the usage of other tools of foreign relations with these contiguous countries. The Multinational Task Force (MNTF) was established in 1993 by Lake Chad Basin Commission and had to be resuscitated and invigorated by the governments of Jonathan and Buhari. However, the insurgency lingered despite these concerted efforts. This paper attempts to investigate why several foreign and security policy initiatives of the Nigerian government have failed to find lasting solutions to the insurgency. Secondary data, qualitative research methods, and content analysis were used as a methodology in this research. Findings showed that inefficiencies of government, poverty, and porous borders made it easier for Boko Haram terrorists to recruit members from these neighbouring countries. It was also revealed that this insurgency has made Nigeria lose foreign direct investment (FDI) because some Multinational Corporations (MNCs) relocated from the country. Therefore, the study advocates a wider approach that incorporates economic programs that would reduce poverty among the local populace and stronger border controls, among others.


Paper ID: JCIRD0201-6       Pages 247-262        Full Text: (.pdf)





7. The Gulf War Revisited: Issues and Contributions to the Art of War

Author(s): Rotimi Olajide Opeyeoluwa


This paper examines the 1991 Gulf War and how it contributed to the development of the art of war since the dawn of the post-Cold War realities. The 1991 Gulf War was a war waged by a coalition force of 40 nations led by the United States of America (USA) against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion and subsequent annexation of Kuwait, arising from oil pricing and production disputes. This article seeks an explanation for how the Gulf War has contributed to the art of war by explaining how the Napoleonic strategy of quick and decisive victory was used in the operation. This strategy contrast sharply with the intention of Iraq for a sustained all-drawn-out war, which is meant to wear out their opponents. The article analyses the further consequences of this conceptual clash in military doctrine. It explains that the contrast between both concepts and especially the western military culture for fighting wars was the decisive element in the Gulf War. In carrying out this research, secondary sources were consulted and used accordingly. The research findings show the contribution of the 1991 Gulf War to the increasing complexities of war. The war further demonstrated the validity of the collective security system as the coalition forces were able to restore Kuwait’s sovereignty. In addition, the study is relevant as it exposed the challenges posed by warfare and the vulnerabilities it poses in inter-state relations and on the international system.

Paper ID: JCIRD0201-7       Pages 263-286      Full Text: (.pdf)





8. Textiles in West Africa’s Trade Relations: The Politics of State Development and Economic Integration

Author(s): Eferiro Ibitoroko Edewor


Attempts to improve regional ties and economic development prompted the economic integration in West Africa, but not without its challenges. This study interrogates the extent to which textiles trade has operated within the sub-region despite a rich history in textiles and the potential for a buoyant trade. The study is set in the interaction between economic liberalism and economic nationalism. It employs data from secondary sources that were content analysed. The study finds that West African states respond with protectionism in the face of economic challenges despite the existence of ECOWAS. Thus, the study calls for a review of the regional agreement to afford greater cohesion and an accessible regional market.


Paper ID: JCIRD0201-8       Pages 287-303            Full Text: (.pdf)





9. Non-Actor Actors in World Politics: A Challenge to Nation- States?

Author(s): Olajide Elias Orogbemi


In international politics, the discussion has always essentially focused on the sovereignty of nation-states. Nation-states are widely viewed as the only important actors in world politics. However, nation-states are by no means the only politically and economically significant actors in world politics. In the post- World War II era, non-state actors were recognized as having an important impact on world politics. This paper critically examines the ways in which and the extent to which the emergence of non-state actors such as Multinational Corporations, Transnational Advocacy Networks, Transnational Diaspora Communities, and Violent Non-State Actors in world politics affects the relevance of nation-states who were initially regarded as the sole actor in world politics from the realist perspective. The complex interdependence theory is adopted as the framework of analysis. This study uses qualitative research method of analysis, and lean only on secondary data. The findings show that the state-centric image of world politics is both inaccurate and potentially damaging for the analysis of world politics. A state-centric focus, no matter its level of sophistication, can limit the ability of both academics and policymakers to describe, explain, and manage the complexity of the world arena. Non-state actors are making their contributions, both positively and negatively, to the state system.

Paper ID: JCIRD0201-9       Pages 304-324            Full Text: (.pdf)