Volume 2 Issue 1: April 2019

PaperID: AJERD0201-01; Pages: 1-10

Routing and Scheduling of the Federal University of Technology Akure Campus Shuttle-A Geographical Information System Approach

Author(s): Olugbenga Joseph OYEDEPO, Joshua ALADEJUYIGBE, Japheth Eromietse ETU, Rotimi EKUDEHINMI, Samuel Olumide AKANDE

Abstract: Geographical Information System (GIS) was applied to the routing of campus shuttle in the study area to determine the optimum route for safe, effective and efficient transport services. Google earth professional was utilized to extract both the Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) road network imagery and the coordinates of some prominent places in the University. The road network map was geo-referenced, digitized with ArcGIS 10.2.1 and converted to a network analysis data set utilizing ArcCatalog. A maximum trekking distance of 200 metres from the existing bus stop to the service area was adopted to reduce students’ travel time and maximize serviceability of the campus shuttle. The network analyst of the ArcGIS was used to analyse and determine the best routes for all service areas. The findings revealed that only 40.5% of all service areas in the school are currently being served by ten bus stops, while five new bus stops leading to an increase of 41.8% in the places that will be serviced over that of the existing bus stops was proposed. Hence, GIS is a veritable tool for vital decision making in transportation planning and for determining an optimal path.

PaperID: AJERD0201-02; Pages: 11-19

Damaging Profile of SS-304 Crevice Corrosion in Chloride Environments

Author(s): A. G. Adeniyi, O. O. Ogunleye, M. O. Durowoju, S. O. Odeyemi

Abstract: Type 304 stainless steel (SS-304) has wide industrial applications due to its weldability and resistance to corrosion. However, it suffers crevice corrosion especially in chloride environments. The damaging profiles of its crevice corrosion in chloride environments were evaluated. The crevice assembly used for this study comprised of coupon (SS-304), polytetrafluoroethylene (crevice former) and fasteners (titanium bolt, nut and washers) designed in three configurations with crevice scaling factor of 8, 16 and 24, respectively. The configurations had 40 crevice sites and immersed in various chloride solution concentrations of 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 w/w% simulating environmental conditions A, B, and C respectively for 45 days in full immersion test. ASTM G-78 was used to estimate the value of % area attacked over time. The obtained results showed that the highest percentage of creviced area was attacked in marine environment followed by brackish and freshwater in that order. The damaging profile confirms the severity of chloride environment and the possible control by reducing the possible percentage of chloride in creviced area of process assembly.

PaperID: AJERD0201-03; Pages: 20-25

Proximate, Ultimate Analysis and Industrial applications of Some Nigerian Coals

Author(s): M.A. Bodude, W.A.  Ayoola, A. Oyetunji, Y.D. Baba, A.L. Odukoya, O.A. Onifade, O.O. Olugbile

Abstract: The physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were used to evaluate coal samples from Udane-Biomi, Emewe-Efoppa and Okobo, Kogi state, Nigeria. The results of the proximate analysis of the coals showed higher ash content for Udane-Biomi (75.23%) than Emewe-Efoppa (6.86 %) and Okobo (3.32 %) coal deposits. The Net Calorific Values (NCV) obtained from Bomb Calorimetry test indicated that the heating value of Emewe-Efoppa (25.25 MJ/Kg) and Okobo (26.53 MJ/Kg) coal samples were eight times higher than Udane-Biomi (3.2 Kcal/kg) sample. The chemical composition of the coal got from the ultimate analysis test showed that the carbon contents were between 10.40 – 68.59 %. The sulphur and nitrogen contents in all coals were similar and significantly low. Based on the analyses of the results obtained, Emewe-Efoppa and Okobo coals may be used for different purposes such as power generation, fuels, feedstock for chemicals and Udane-Biomi coal is best for cement production.

PaperID: AJERD0201-04; Pages: 26-35

A Comparative Study and Performance Evaluation of GSM in Urban Settlements in Nigeria

Author(s): Rakiyat AYANDA, Abdulwaheed MUSA and Muheeb AHMED

Abstract: With the rapid growth of the wireless industry, GSM networks are expanding at high rates with many network operators bringing forth different services. However, most of the subscribers are not satisfied due to poor nature of services available on these networks in form of blocked and dropped calls. In this paper, Quality of Service (QoS) for circuit switched calls in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria using two different networks (A and B) as case study in three characteristically different locations was investigated.  The network performance was assessed in terms of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) based on statistics generated from drive test measurements and customer feedbacks. The result shows that the network accessibility and retainability of Ilorin is unreliable and below regulatory agency’s requirements. We concluded with recommendations on how to improve the QoS in Ilorin to enhance the telecommunication system which could be adapted in Nigeria.

PaperID: AJERD0201-05; Pages: 36-41

Thermal and Catalytic Pyrolysis of Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Waste into Useful Fuel Oils: Comparative Studies

Author(s): Sulaiman Age ABDULKAREEM, Taofiqat Omotayo ABU, Naimah Abimbola ELEBURUIKE

Abstract: Catalytic and non-catalytic (thermal) conversion of polyolefinic wastes into useful liquid fuel oils rich in paraffinic and olefinic hydrocarbons were attempted using a self-designed stainless-steel laboratory reactor. For the catalytic process, the waste polymer was degraded in an organic solvent (Toluene) by a bi-metallic catalyst (CoMo/Al2O3) into solid residue, liquid fuel oil and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products after 1¼ hr of the catalytic reaction at temperature range of 260 – 325°C. The thermal process yielded identical products but at a longer reaction time (2hrs) and higher temperature range of 474-520°C. The smell, characteristics and the hydrocarbon distribution of the liquid fuels of both processes overlap with the existing hydrocarbon fuels obtainable in the refineries in that they contain C8-C24 hydrocarbons. The solid residue exhibits the characteristics of grease while the highly volatile gaseous product was eluted without collection due to technical difficulties. Closed-system reaction operations of this nature can be utilized to achieve 100% conversion of polyolefinic wastes to desirable hydrocarbon products that can serve as alternatives to existing fuels thereby reducing the burden of plastic wastes on the environment.

PaperID: AJERD0201-06; Pages: 42-48

Co-Digestion of Water Hyacinth and Poultry Manure for Improved Biogas yield

Author(s): Ochuko Mary OJO, Josiah Oladele BABATOLA, Adebisi Olayinka AKINOLA, Olurinde LAFE, Adedeji Adebukola ADELODUN

Abstract: The best mix of Water hyacinth (WH) to be co-digested with Poultry manure (PM) in order to maximize biogas yield in terms of quantity was determined in this study. Eleven (11) mix ratios of WH: PM were evaluated. 25 litre laboratory size digesters were used for the experiments. The overall assessment of the best mix ratios was measured in terms of the gas flow rate. The results revealed that biogas production started between 2nd and 6th day for all the mixes. The highest gas produced was observed between 17th and 19th day for all samples. Biogas production stopped between 34th and 39th day for all samples.  WH: PM ratio of 2:8 gave the highest biogas yield of 11.62 L on the 19th day, starting gas production on the 2nd day and stopping on the 39th day. The results revealed a cumulative biogas yield which ranged from 54.45 to 216.55 L with 2 WH: 8 PM recording the highest value corresponding to 34.65 L/kg. The 3rd order polynomial curve for the different mixes of the PM aided biogas production rate had a significant R2 value of 0.9678 with 2 WH: 8 PM being the best PM-aided WH digestion mix. . From the results obtained, 2 WH: 8 PM is the best PM-aided WH digestion mix in terms of daily biogas production, cumulative volume of gas produced and maximum biogas production rate.

PaperID: AJERD0201-07; Pages: 49-58

Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Methylene Blue and Congo Red Dyes Adsorption on Sorghum Husk

Author(s): Usman Dadum HAMZA, Polycarp DATUGUN , Saeed Isa AHMED

Abstract: The application of dyes by many industries to colour their products generates a considerable amount of coloured wastewater that is toxic to life. The aim of this study is to develop low-cost adsorbent from sorghum husk at optimum conditions for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) and Congo Red (CR) dyes from aqueous solutions. The biosorbent characterization was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) Surface Analyzer, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) optimization was carried out using Box-Behnken design of Design Expert software; it was also used to generate the experimental design used to carry out adsorption experiments. Effects of contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage on the biosorbent performance on the dyes removal were investigated. Optimization of the process variables gave optimum contact time of 138.05 min, pH of 3.00 and adsorbent dosage of 4.00 g with percentage removal of 94.22 % for MB and 88.63 % for CR. Therefore, the use of Box–Behnken design of RSM gives a reliable methodology for optimization of process variables for adsorption of MB and CR from aqueous solution.

PaperID: AJERD0201-08; Pages: 59-70

Modelling of Thin Layer Drying of Dika Kernel and Dika Nut Using Different Drying Methods

Author(s): John ISA

Abstract: In this study, the thin layer drying characteristics of dika kernel and dika nut were investigated using two drying methods viz; mechanical drying methods with three temperature parameters (50 OC, 60 OC and 70 OC) at drying air velocity of 0.9 m/s and open sun drying method. All the readings for the experiment were taken at 30 minutes interval. The experimental data obtained were converted to the dimensionless moisture ratio and were fitted into fourteen thin layer drying models. In order to select the best model that can best describe the drying characteristics of dika kernel and dika nut, coefficient of determination, (R2), reduced chi-square (χ2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used. Results showed that the Hii et al. model was able to describe the drying of dika nut using mechanical method with R2, χ2, MBE and RMSE values of 0.9997, 0.000017,0.0000035 and 0.038595 respectively, Modified Henderson was able to describe the mechanical drying for dika kernel with the R2, χ2, MBE and RMSE values of 0.9996, 0.000023,0.0000094 and 0.00395 respectively. For the sun drying method, the model that best described the dika nut is Midili-Kucuk, with R2, χ2, MBE and RMSE values of 0.9988, 0.000072,0.0000085 and 0.0078 respectively, Hi et al model was able to describe dika kernel with the R2, χ2, MBE and RMSE values of 0.9980, 0.00016,0.0003 and 0.011 respectively. It is expected that this study will be beneficial to those involved in modelling, design, optimization, and analysis of food drying.

PaperID: AJERD0201-09; Pages: 71-82

Optimal Placement and Sizing of IG based DG in Power Distribution System to Reduce Power Losses and Improve Voltage Profile

Author(s): Idris MUSA, Sani M. LAWAL, Ganiyu A. BAKARE

Abstract: In this paper, an extended model of induction machine is developed to provide a simple method for power flow analysis of Induction Generator (IG) for application as Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution network. The power flow analysis allows for ease of computation of the reactive power requirement of the induction generator for subsequent compensation using static compensator devices (shunt capacitors) to relieve the network of unnecessary reactive power demand from IG. The power flow analysis algorithm is combined with AC power flow algorithm (PFA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for IG integration in distribution network. The objective is to minimize network power loss. The PFA computes the objective function while the PSO is employed as a global optimizer to find the global optimal solution. The shunt capacitor locally provides the reactive power required by IG. The results of the algorithm, when tested on a standard 33-bus distribution network, show substantial reduction in power loss and overall improvement in network voltage profile.

PaperID: AJERD0201-10; Pages: 83-89

Failure Behaviour of the Shiroro Hydroelectric Power Station Turbo-Alternators: A Performance Evaluation

Author(s): Olalekan OGUNBIYI, Cornelius Temitope THOMAS, Opeoluwa ALUKO, Benjamin Jimi OLUFEAGBA

Abstract: A reliable electrical power supply is non-negotiable for national growth and development, as electricity is needed in virtually every sector of production and commercial activities. The Shiroro hydroelectric power station (SHEPS) commissioned in 1990 comprises four units of turbo-alternators made of Francis turbine rated at 150 MW each. In this paper, an EXCEL-VBA script was used to extract a contiguous set of up and down times which were used to compute ‘time-between-failures’ (TBF). The failure events and failure rate of each unit were estimated using the power generation data of the station from the year 2008 to 2015. A structured database was organized for accurate analysis. Unit 3 was found to have the longest TBF with a value of 46 days, while the least was found in unit 1 with a value of 17 days. The Reliability value of each unit was also computed and unit 3 was found to be the only unit having a value up to 70%. SHEPS was found to still be in its productive age and possesses a tendency of still generating close to the rated value if properly refurbished.

PaperID: AJERD0201-11; Pages: 90-102

Path Loss Modelling of UHF Radio Wave Propagation in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Author(s): Akinlolu Adediran PONNLE, Olusola John OWOLABI

Abstract: In order to achieve optimal performance of a wireless communication system in any given environment, empirical path loss models are used to predict the received signal strength and power. We present an assessment of the quality of UHF signal reception and development of path loss model in the UHF range for the city of Ado-Ekiti in Nigeria, using the signal field strength of the broadcast signal of Ekiti State Television (EKTV). Measurements of received signal field strength within and around the city were carried out and analyzed, from which path loss models in the UHF range were developed for Ado-Ekiti using linear regression model – one being a general model, and the other is for the western region of Ado-Ekiti with irregular terrain. The result of the field strength measurements from EKTV in comparison with ITU recommendation for analogue terrestrial television service in band V shows that the quality of reception within Ado-Ekiti metropolis is good. Also, path loss prediction for Ado-Ekiti using three conventional empirical models in literature: Okumura-Hata model, COST-Hata model, and Egli model were performed, and the results obtained were compared with results from the developed models. Comparison shows that COST-Hata model has the highest standard deviation value of 24.11 from the general model while Okumura-Hata and Egli model has lower values of 22.76 and 22.30 respectively. For the model of the western region with irregular terrain, COST-Hata model also has the highest standard deviation value of 26.61 while Okumura-Hata and Egli each has a value of 25.29 and 21.85 respectively.

PaperID: AJERD0201-12; Pages: 103-110

Evaluation of the Reliability of Distribution System with Distributed Generation using ETAP

Author(s): M. A. Gana, U.O. Aliyu, G.A. Bakare

Abstract: Distributed Generation (DG) is an electric source connected directly to the distribution network. DG has been growing rapidly in deregulated power systems due to their potential solutions to meeting localized demands at distribution level and to mitigate limited transmission capacities from centralized power stations. In this paper effort has been made to study the impact of DG on the reliability of the distribution network. IEEE 33 Bus distribution network and Ran feeder from Bauchi distribution network were used for the study. Firstly, DGs were optimally sized and located in the networks using Modified Particle swarm optimization and ETAP software was used to model and evaluate the reliability indices. Two scenarios were considered. Scenario one was the integration of single DG and two was integration of two DGs. The results obtained showed that as the number of DG in the system increases the reliability of the system also increases.

PaperID: AJERD0201-13; Pages: 111-119

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­An Alternative Approach to Voltage Collapse Prediction in a Practical Nigerian 330-kV Interconnected Power Grid

Author(s): Akintunde S.  ALAYANDE, Claudius O.A. AWOSOPE, Ignatius K. OKAKWU, Olanike O. ADE-IKUESAN, John M. ALAYANDE

Abstract: The rapid increase in electrical power demand without a corresponding compensation from generation has resulted in various total blackouts within power systems. Consequently, various cascading failures have been witnessed within modern power networks in recent times. This paper, therefore, proposes a new method for predicting the points of voltage collapse eruption within any given practical power network. The mathematical formulations of the proposed approach-based circuit theory are presented. A new stability index, termed Load Bus Proximity Index (LBPI), which is able to predict the points of voltage collapse within the network, is then formulated. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested on the standard IEEE 5-bus network as well as the practical Nigerian 28-bus network. The results show that the proposed alternative approach could be useful in predicting the point of voltage insecurity within practical power networks. This information could be useful to power sy­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­stem operators in minimizing the occurrence voltage collapse within practical power networks. 

PaperID: AJERD0201-14; Pages: 120-134

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Development and Performance Evaluation of a Micro Controller Based Refrigeration Control System Using Fresh Fruits

Author(s): Taye Stephen MOGAJI

Abstract: This paper presents reports on the performance evaluation of a developed micro controller-based refrigeration control system (MCBRCS) using fresh fruits. The cooling system operating with R134a as working fluid consists of an evaporator, compressor, condenser, capillary tube and a temperature control device (TCD). The refrigerator system has capacity to accommodate about 0.02 metric tonnes (20kg) of any fresh fruits. The cooling system was validated on no load condition and was also used to preserve fresh fruits: pineapple (Ananas comosus) and cucumber (Cucumissativus L). The fresh fruits preservation spans over 14 days in two storage conditions, viz., ambient and MCBRCS storage. Study was conducted to check the freshness of the fruits and data were observed daily. The validation results of the attained cooling system revealed that the system performed well in terms of temperature and relative humidity regulation above freezing point. Physiological loss in weight (PLW) of the tested fruits samples was less under MCBRCS storage as compared to ambient storage. The needed optimum storage temperature for the preservation of the selected fresh fruits samples was achieved at 7°C – 10°C and the effects of excessive chilling/freezing injury commonly occurred in multipurpose VCRS is naturally eliminated. The organoleptic test results revealed that the developed MCBRCS performed up to expectation and could be used as a veritable tool to increase the shelf life of post harvesting perishable agricultural products.

PaperID: AJERD0201-15; Pages: 135-142

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Environmental Impacts of Polyethylene Generation and Disposal in Ilesha City, Osun State, Nigeria

Author(s): Obafemi Olutola OLUBANJO

Abstract: The quantity and generation rate of solid wastes in Nigeria is increasing over the years with lack of efficient and modern technology for its management. The field research was approached through extensive literature search, administering of questionnaire, interview and personal observation by selecting seven daily markets in Ilesha for data collection. The study was carried out to examine the effects of improper handling and disposal of domestic wastes on the lives and health conditions of people of Ilesha and its environ. A simple random sampling was used to select the market. The selected markets are Idasa, Adeti, Idi-Ose, Oja-Oba, Korede, Irojo and Sabo. Out of the total sample size of 300, 60% of them were females and while40% were males. The study sample randomly included 49% of students leaving in the study communities, 25% of the respondents were operating private businesses while 17% were in the civil service category. However, 9% of the respondents included in the study sample were unemployed. The percentage of respondents who had no education was 7%, tertiary (47%), secondary (37%), primary (5%) and vocational education (4%). In a multiple response, almost all household within the municipal agreed that plastic waste created diversity of problems. 47% indicated that plastic waste silt gutters, 37% said plastic waste creates unsanitary environmental conditions, 30% was of the view that plastic wastes serve as breading grounds for mosquitoes, 20% said they cause animal death while 23% said they pollute water bodies. Also, nearly 15% indicated that plastic wastes affect human health and 19% said they affect agricultural soils. Indiscriminate polyethylene disposal has constituted environmental nuisance and degradation. For market cleaner and sustainable environments, vigorous enlightenment campaign, proper collection techniques and recycling among others are recommended.

PaperID: AJERD0201-16; Pages: 143-153

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Physicochemical Assessment of Borehole and Well Water Used in Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

Author(s): Obafemi Olutola OLUBANJO, Adebolu Elijah ALADE, Abosede Mary OLUBANJO

Abstract: The importance of access to good quality water cannot be overemphasised. Effective water quality monitoring could assist in checking the quality of water for consumption. This study was aimed to determine physicochemical quality of water parameters from boreholes and wells used in different locations at Akungba-Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria. The water samples were collected from both drying and raining season and analysed using different types of analytical techniques. The parameters analysed includes pH, turbidity, odour, temperature, colour, TDS, TSS, conductivity and some heavy metals such as cadmium, nickel and lead using standard methods of analysis. The results obtained were compared with World Health Organisation standards (WHO), for drinking water. The physicochemical and the heavy metal analyses were in compliance with the WHO standards with exception of the concentration of total suspended solids during dry season which were higher in Okele for borehole water. They were above the limit of 5 mg/l recommended for well water at Igbelu in dry and wet season. The samples analysed for borehole water show that nickel were higher in the following samples locations Ilale 1, Ilale 2, Okusa 1, Okusa 2, Okele, Akunmi 1 and Abi 1 for dry season and also higher in Ilale1, Ilale 2, Okusa 1, Okele, Akunmi 1,Abi 1 and Etioro for wet season. Also, for well water, the samples analysed show that nickel were higher in the following samples location Supare-Akungba road, Emmanuel street, Okele and Akunnu for dry season and also higher in Supare-Akungba road for wet season. Proper sanitation should be strictly observed around the vicinity of the boreholes and the well water and appropriate treatment should be done according to seasonal variation with respect to the important physicochemical parameters. Method such as phytoremediation can be introduced to reduce the levels of Lead and Nickel in the water from the studied area.

PaperID: AJERD0201-17; Pages: 154-160

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Development of a Level-Crossing Advisory Prototype Using Wireless Sensor Network

Author(s): Moses Oluwafemi ONIBONOJE

Abstract: This paper presents the development of an advisory system prototype for level crossings. The study aimed at helping undergraduate students to understand the basic application of wireless sensor network, for safety of road users at a railway level crossing. The system design consists of a three-level detection rack, within which the approaching train is detected and the signal logic transmitted wirelessly for indication to the level crossing road users. The road users at every instance are advisedly alerted of the approaching train, and its speed conditions.  The wireless units were first selected with best comparative advantages and robust integration capacity. The hardware and software units were developed for optimal performance. The sensing unit employed passive infrared technology. The transceiver unit consists of Xbee module, and RF connectivity was used in signal communication. Arduino variants were used as microcontroller to set up an interface. The design demonstrates the gains of wireless communication, infrared technology, simplicity, and cost effectiveness in the implementation.  About 50 randomly selected students were taught using the module. The identifiable problems with most of the students include: correct setting up of the interface, coding of the Arduino boards, and developing the sensor nodes.

PaperID: AJERD0201-18; Pages: 161-169

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Benin-Irrua Transmission Line Voltage Stability Condition: Evaluating the Stability Indices

Author(s): Peter Michael ENYONG and Abdulai Braimah OSHOMAH

Abstract: The voltage stability condition of the Benin-Irrua 132 KV medium transmission line (MTL) was investigated. This paper presents the approaches to the evaluation of ten relevant stability indices to that effect. Six stability indices by load-and-system impedance method include Voltage Stability Load Bus Index (VSLBI), Impedance Stability Index (ISI), Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI), Voltage Index Predictor (VIP), Transmission Path Stability Index (TPSI) and Line Stability Index (Lmn). The other four indices evaluated by the maximum-loadability method were Voltage Stability Index (VSI), Power Transfer Stability Index (PTSI), Voltage Collapse Potential Indices (VCPI’s), and Voltage Stability Margin (VSM). In tandem with their various standard specifications (in per unit terms): only two of the ten indices, VSI(0.45) and TPSI(0.47), gave indications close to a 50/50% chance of stable and collapsed conditions; which is considered okay. The indices FVSI(0.11), Lmn(0.12), PTSI(0.23), VCPI(0.23) and VSM(0.76), five of them provided indications to very good voltage stability condition; whereas, the remaining three, ISI(0.07), VIP(1.00) and VSLBI(29.67), constituted pointers to excellent static voltage stability condition. Thus, the line was adjudged to be in good voltage stability condition.